Read chapter 27 in your text: “Pain and comfort,” provide a summary of what has been written regarding pain in the older adult population.
Identify factors that affect the pain experience in older adults.
Identify barriers that interfere with pain assessment treatment.
Address the key components of a nursing assessment and data to include in a pain assessment.
Discuss pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain management therapies.
Discuss how the gerontological nurse can develop a care plain to care for an older adult with pain.
How can the geriatric nurse help to advocate and improve the care of older adults as it relates to pain management including nursing interventions or teaching and education using evidence-based research.
F. Minimum of 5-6 references are required for this assignment. Example of an article on this topic: https://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume92004/No3Sept04/ArticlePreviousTopic/PainAssessmentandManagementinAging.html
Factors that affect the pain experience in older adults
The pain experience of older adults can be greatly affected by a variety of factors, including age, health status, and lifestyle choices. Here are some of the most common factors:
– Age: The pain experience is typically more intense and protracted in older adults than in younger adults. This is due in part to structural changes in the body, such as decreases in muscle mass and bone density. Additionally, the ability to process and respond to pain signals may decline with age.
– Health status: Older adults may have more chronic conditions or diseases that affect their ability to feel pain. Examples include arthritis, cancer, and diabetes. In many cases, the severity of these conditions can impact how well older adults can tolerate pain medication.
– Lifestyle choices: Older adults may make different lifestyle choices that affect their ability to cope with pain. For example, they may avoid activities that cause discomfort or stress because they don’t want to inconvenience themselves or others. Or they may choose not to seek medical care if they experience minor pain symptoms.
Overall, it’s important for older adults to be aware of their own pain experience
Discuss pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain management therapies
Pharmacological pain management therapies
Pharmacological pain management therapies are drugs or treatments that help to reduce or manage pain. Common pharmacological pain management therapies include analgesics (painkillers), anesthetics (medications that block nerve impulses), and anti-inflammatory medications.
The most common analgesics are opioid drugs, including morphine, codeine, and hydrocodone. Opioid drugs work by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord and blocking the sensation of pain. Other common analgesics include non-opioid drugs, such as ibuprofen and aspirin.
Anesthetics work by blocking nerve impulses, which reduces the feeling of pain. Common anesthetics include lidocaine (a topical anesthetic) and etomidate (an anesthetic used during general anesthesia).
Anti-inflammatory medications work by reducing the inflammation associated with pain. Common anti-inflammatory medications include ibuprofen and naproxen.
Pharmacological pain management therapies can be divided into 3 categories: analgesics, anesthetics, and tranquilizers.
Analgesics are medications that reduce pain. The most common analgesics are ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is also a component of many over-the-counter cold and flu products. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that help to cause pain. Other analgesics include naproxen and codeine.
Anesthetics are medications that block the sensation of pain. The most common anesthetics are lidocaine and bupivacaine. Lidocaine is also used as a local anesthetic for surgery. Bupivacaine is used as an anesthetic for childbirth and other surgery. Anesthesiologists use these drugs in combination to achieve the best results.
Tranquilizers are medications that reduce anxiety or agitation. The most common tranquilizers are benzodiazepines (such as alprazolam [Xanax] and lorazepam [Ativan]) and barbiturates.
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Nonpharmacological pain management therapies
Nonpharmacological therapies are treatments that do not involve medications. Many people turn to these methods to manage pain when medications do not work or when they become uncomfortable or addictive.
Some of the most popular nonpharmacological therapies include: acupuncture, massage, acupressure, chiropractic manipulation, and spinal manipulation. These therapies can be used in combination or alone, and some people find them more effective than medications.
Nonpharmacological pain management therapies are often the first line of defense for people with chronic pain. There are many different approaches to nonpharmacological pain management, and each can be tailored to the individual’s needs. Some common nonpharmacological pain management techniques include exercise, relaxation techniques, breathing exercises, and massage.
There are a variety of exercises that can be used to reduce pain. Simple stretches can help to improve range of motion and reduce inflammation. Stretching exercises can also be done before and after workouts to promote muscle recovery. Other exercises that can be helpful for reducing pain include yoga, Pilates, and Tae Bo.
Relaxation techniques can also be very helpful for reducing pain. Techniques such as meditation and deep breathing can help to reduce stress levels, which can then lead to decreased levels of inflammation. Some people find relief from relaxation techniques through self-hypnosis or acupuncture.
Breathing exercises can also be very helpful for reducing pain. Exercise has been shown to increase oxygen levels in the blood, which helps to reduce inflammation and pain signals from the brain. Many people find relief from breathing exercises by practicing regularly or using apps like Calm Breathe or Headspace.
Some of the most common nonpharmacological pain management therapies include:
1. Acupuncture. Acupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that uses needles to stimulate points on the body in order to relieve pain. There is evidence that acupuncture can be effective in treating chronic pain, though there is limited research on its use for acute pain.
2. Massage therapy. Massage has been used for centuries to treat various conditions, including pain relief. A massage therapist will use pressure and strokes to help release tension and improve circulation. Massage can also be used as a prelude to other treatments, such as acupuncture or chiropractic care.
3. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation). TENS machines are small devices that are placed on the skin over areas where pain is felt. The machine sends electrical pulses through the skin, which can help reduce inflammation and swelling and relieve pain.
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1. What is the important roles and functions of the nurse in the care of older persons?
Nurses play a significant role in promoting health literacy through education to support the older person to make decisions on their life including advance care planning. Nurses are key to providing appropriate and person-centred palliative care to support the older person and their families at end of life.
2. What is the nurse’s role in patient advocacy?
Nurse advocates facilitate communication with all members of the healthcare team regarding the patient’s preferences. They incorporate patient-identified goals into the plan of care and provide objective guidance.
3. How can nurses improve evidence-based practice?
To effectively apply the EBP process, in addition to the basic skills required to undertake nursing work, a nurse must have the ability to: (1) identify knowledge gaps, (2) formulate relevant questions, (3) conduct an efficient literature search, (4) apply rules of evidence to determine the validity of studies
4. What are the special considerations the nurse should take when implementing the nursing process and providing care for the older adult?
Nurses should have competencies such as participation and empowerment of the patient and family; ease of comfort in the elderly; comprehensive geriatric assessment; development, implementation and evaluation of care plan; development of knowledge and clinical proficiency; and coaching so that they can work effectively
5. How the geriatric nurse support the elderly?
They help patients with activities of daily living, monitor patients’ conditions, and assist doctors in diagnostic procedures and surgeries. They work with patients who have complex medical conditions and those with long-term or chronic illnesses.