Disease Eradication and Health Systems Development – Best Assignment Solutions(2022)

This article covers Disease Eradication and Health Systems Development, Primary Health Care – PHC, The Alma-Ata Declaration, Effectiveness of Community Based Primary Healthcare in Improving Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health, Chronic Disease Control and Globalization and its Role in PHC and Public Health.

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Primary Health Care – PHC


           From the reading, it is blatantly clear that primary healthcare weighs heavily on good sanitation. This is because, following the article, the little efforts done by Nurse Nikiéma in ensuring that people in his region have access to both clean water and environmentally friendly areas is seemingly becoming productive. As Alex Duval Smith reports in the article, child mortality rates that had previously worried locals of Burkina Faso has significantly reduced in the specified region, Rapadama Village, as a consequence of the minor efforts to improve on sanitation.

It is quite demotivating to learn that Burkina Faso is a landlocked country that is further regarded as ground zero for environmental change. Nonetheless, determinations to inflict change on the area by Mr. Nikiéma captured the attention of UNICEF and other non-governmental bodies together with many other well-wishers, which has, thereby, escalated his efforts to achieve more than he had anticipated. From such collaborations, the effects of the little successes in eliminating child mortality through sanitation have caught enormous attention of the general public.

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As a result, impactful plans have been put to elevate the project and achieve Nurse Nikiéma’s objectives ultimately. This is enough proof in showing just how sanitation is necessary for primary health. Poor sanitation, as such, should be regarded as threat to good health and limitation to achieving the key objectives of primary health in society. 


The Alma-Ata Declaration

Primary Health Care is essential in a human being’s life based on the World Health Organization WHO’s Declaration of Alma-Ata 1978. Under the declaration, WHO is mostly interested in maintaining the right health conditions on a global basis. The declarations made here should not be contradicted in any way since they prioritize good health over other economic and social development issues.

The declaration recognizes the fact that the growth of economies is entirely dependent on stable health conditions. It further advocates for equality in the maintenance of the right health conditions on a global scale. This imperative, most notably to developing communities, often lacks adequate care, facilities, or expertise due to insufficient funds and inferior technologies. This declaration, as such, acts as a light in the dark for such communities. Through the implementation of real interests that arise from this declaration, third-world countries are relieved of the worry for proper healthcare.

The declaration further reminds persons of their right and obligation to proper healthcare. As such, people and governments should remain conversant with the Alma-Ata declaration and be responsible for maintaining the right health conditions for a more durable and healthy word. The declaration covers a broader range of health concerns, and many have not been highlighted in this text.

Module 2

Effectiveness of Community Based Primary Healthcare in Improving Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health

           Community based primary health care (CPBH) is a program that was initiated to assist in extending health services from the hospitals to the community. The program has further been moved even much closer to individuals’ doorsteps. This study reviews previous research works and reports on CPBH to research identifying the intensity and effectiveness in enhancing maternal, neonatal, childbirth (MNCH).

Per the study, there is a rapid growth in the evidence of the effectiveness of CPBH in enhancing the health conditions of mothers, neonates, and newborns below five years. However, limited attention is has been given to it. Seemingly, a global rebirth of the global rebirth of primary healthcare is looming following the upcoming 40th anniversary of the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health.

It is imperative to note that the proof of how CPBHC enhances MNCH, and their effectiveness is well documented, how the interventions are practically executed, on the other hand. The conditions necessary for the success of this process have not been well articulated. And that is the primary goal of this study.  In that regard, the study evaluates the already executed interventions and completed research to answer its preexisting questions. As such, a need arises to establish proof of what is fundamental for the systematic sharing of good practice and the more excellent distribution of new evidence.


Physical Access to Primary Health Care in Andean Bolivia

           Perry and Gessler’s Article, Physical Access to Primary Health Care in Andean Bolivia, basically delves into examining the difficulties seen when contributing to populations with poor health, most notably, in developing areas. Following the study’s findings, the major problem is access to primary health care services due to its inadequacy in such regions. The existing imbalance severely occurs on the type, count, and spatial locations of personnel, limiting physical accessibility.

For instance, the majority of individuals inhabiting the Ambana region of Andean Bolivia have constrained access to primary healthcare service because distances to be covered extend to an hour by foot-travel. Nonetheless, the paper suggests various technological approaches, which can be used to address the physical inaccessibility of primary health care in such areas. For example, the paper proposes using GIS to examine the preexisting condition of three areas within the region.

The results shall be used to determine strategic locations for the personnel installation to solve the physical inaccessibility issue for the people of Andean Bolivia. On the other hand, the study was unable to complete an exhaustive assessment of every spatial element of health care, which leaves more chances for future pursuits.  


New Meningitis Vaccine Brings Hope of Taming a Ravaging Illness in Africa

           On December 4TH, 2010, Celia W. Dugger reported the allegations on the newly found cure for meningitis, which was easily affordable. According to Dugger’s report, the cure was made for third-world disease, hence its cost friendliness. Over the decades, meningitis was a significant problem, more or so, to Africa. It was seasonal and would claim lots of lives, leaving behind damaged people weeping over their lost loved ones.

Reportedly, people exceeding one million had contracted this disease in about twenty years before the arrival of this good news. As recounted by Dugger, the vaccine relied on a technology devised by scholars at a Food and Drug Administration and offered by the American Government. It was later manufactured in India and independently enhanced by American and European pharmaceutical firms. Its development of the drug was overseen by WHO in collaboration with a team of professionals from a path, a Seattle based NGO.

Before the discovery of this cure, medical experts in Africa often used a polysaccharide vaccine, which was less impactful. It only gave a two to three-year protection to the people living in Africa. When processing the new vaccine, experts predicted that the protection it would give to a human would last for at least ten years to 20 years.

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Disease eradication and health systems development
Disease Eradication and Health Systems Development



Malnutrition in Children

           Child mortality and morbidity are highly caused by malnutrition. Currently, there exist interventions necessitated for both well-nourished and malnourished; however, what is not known is how well they might be received by children on both sides and their mothers as well. Malnutrition is highly elevated by the increased rates of poverty in developing. Many people living in such areas find it hard to earn a living or to find something for food.

This makes it difficult for families to properly feed and maintain the health statuses of their younger ones at the lowest end. According to a report from WHO (2018), approximately 6.2 million children and young adults under 15 years succumbed to malnutrition. It is the world’s leading cause of death in young children (WHO, 2019). To reduce incidences of malnutrition in younger ones, parents should consider conforming to family planning principles.

Controlled birth rates, for instance, give birth at specified intervals, make it easier for families to plan and feed their younger ones properly and manage other affairs simultaneously. Following UNICEF’s video, to decrease the mortality rate in children caused by malnutrition, the concern of undernutrition will have to be addressed first.     


Disease Eradication and Health Systems Development

To eliminate a disease, what first needs to be done is to identify the epidemiological features of the particular disease. At this point, the team of professionals fighting the disease at least has a clue where to kick start.  Moving forward, customization of protocols, and a program that shall be followed is necessitated. These types of programs often have limited timings and are intensive, tactful, targeted, and properly organized. When designing such disease elimination programs, it is imperative to consider that various encounters often come into play, which might compromise its entire development process. Notably, the most common challenge is whether the currently designed program might impactful in the future.

Additionally, it is imperative to realize that the eradication program benefits national health systems without jeopardizing its efforts to eliminate it. Melgaard et al. ‘s article is purposefully written to solve that puzzle. Similarly, in 2007, as Melgaad et al. ‘s article suggests, a disease eradication program was initiated by Orange Company to improve Africa’s health status.

To make the program a reality, the company unrelieved multiple projects that used information and communication technologies (ITCs) to improve the delivery of Medicare within the continent. The then CEO of Orange Company assured locals that the Orange Health Care Program’s main aim was to enhance the traditional healthcare systems and assist in equipping medical facilities with communication solutions. Five years later, mPedigree, a health program used to test the authenticity of drugs before use through text message confirmation, was introduced.

The program came into the light to help solve a significant problem common in third world countries where counterfeit drugs are shipped in large quantiles annually.  MPedigree program, in conjunction with Orange, works together to ensure that this problem is eliminated for good. Many other programs have been launched in Africa in efforts to solve the existing health problems and maintain better health statuses for people in Africa.


Chronic Disease Control

Chronic diseases encompass conditions such as respiratory conditions, cancer, stroke, arthritis, and heart disease. Many of these conditions come as a consequence of poor human habits that are enjoyed by many individuals. Such conditions have, for the longest time, immemorial been seen as the leading primary causes of disabilities and death in first world countries.

However, at this age, these chronic illnesses seem to be profoundly affecting both low-income mid-income countries as opposed to developed nations. Many individuals suffer from them and die in agony without ever getting proper medical attention. This owed to the fact that poverty and inferior technology hinders them from acquiring quality medical attention they are left without options but to submit to their fate.

Chronic illness poses so many threats and harm not only to its patients and their immediate families, but also society in a bigger picture.

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Disease eradication and health systems development
Disease Eradication and Health Systems Development

This kind of disease has directly impacted the general budget of healthcare, affecting the productivity of employees and economies, most notably in third world countries. Chronic disease control, as such, should be considered primary care. This is because it affects almost every individual on earth a significant part of day-to-day life. To control chronic illnesses, various preventive measures should be put in place.

For instance, smoking, which is mostly connected to prolonged lung defects that might eventually lead to lung cancer, should be highly discouraged. Alternatively, various approaches can be used, such as finding curative elements that breakdown the components of chemicals in the cigarettes from destroying the lungs of a smoker. 


The Relationship between the Global Economy, Socioeconomic Status and the Delivery of Primary Health

For quite a long time, resources globally have been unevenly distributed. Apparently, the imbalance in the global economy remains alarming at this age without any evident possibilities of equalities in the future. Fewer individuals amass so much wealth, while very many people languish in filthy poverty.

Perhaps this might not be enough to go by, socioeconomic status has marginalized societies, and the few lucky individuals with enough wealth to show are highly praised and favored. This evident with the fact that the rich, more than often, have good quality living standards, and so is medical attention. Those living in ardent poverty, on the other hand, are left with nothing but to cling on what fate has for them.

The global economy, notably, has been structured in a way that promotes competition among countries, which ultimately facilitates inequality. Third world countries shall always remain poor for one good reason, and they are in no capacity able to compete with developed nations. In these developing nations, nothing else captures the more than pure destitution. The quality of education, health care, and government systems are all out of shape and need attention.

Almost more than half of their populations live and survive two and a half a dollar below daily. Ostensibly, studies have it that about 21,000 children die all over the world daily, which is equated to one child dying every four seconds. The first course of deaths, when carefully examined, is always poverty-related, for instance, when children succumb to malnutrition or any other illness that is easily preventable under good economies.

To this point, it is clear that poverty is the only challenge standing on the way between poor health and mortality rates in low-income countries and the solution, which is equality in the distribution of resources.

On the other hand, globalization has enhanced global connectedness but has failed to address the relationship between the global economy, socioeconomic status, and the delivery of primary health. Health has often been a concern in foreign policy. However, it is imperative to examine whether governments do prioritize over other business and civil society on a national, regional, and global basis.

From what is evident in reports, governments tend to have invested so much on their militaries and weaponry as compared to how much they do to matters health. Some of the health concerns that have seen governments’ attention include the framework convention on tobacco control, enhancement of the reediness of bioterrorism, SARS, and HIV/AIDS.

Current discussions, nonetheless, are expected to bear fruitful results in addressing health issues beyond national borders. As such, globalization is expected to assist in facilitating the flow of materials as well as the opening of economies on foreign lands. Supposedly, foreign policies shall be revised to have stricter measures regarding health issues.

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Disease eradication and health systems development
Disease Eradication and Health Systems Development


Globalization and its Role in PHC and Public Health

Globalization is considered one of the main encounters that public health practitioners and policymakers face. Although multiple literary works advocate for the importance of globalization in the primary health care ad public health, there is no real proof of how globalization has been influential or instrumental towards the development of health statuses.

However, tension exists amid the newly introduced laws, actors, and markets which feature the newer phase of globalization. Most importantly, the main concern is pinpointed on how governments will protect and promote health. For instance, maximizing foreign relationships boosts the development and revision of global laws and institutions. In turn, this leads to the opening of new economies that shall make the scale and scope of cross-border flows to grow.

Taking into account that globalization is influenced by various aspects of development like technology, politics, pressures of the economy, change of ideas, increase in social concerns as well as environmental issues provides a different understanding of its relationship with primary health. In essence, globalization contributes to health in many ways, including effects on health systems and laws that directly occur and the indirect effects on various influences at the level of the population, like the transmission of an infectious through cross-border interactions.


Tette, E. M., Sifah, E. K., & Nartey, E. T. (2015). Factors affecting malnutrition in children and the uptake of interventions to prevent the condition. BMC pediatrics15(1), 189.

WHO. (2019). Children: Reducing mortality. WHO | World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/children-reducing-mortality

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