Osteoarthritis of the Knee
1. Osteoarthritis is a chronic joint disease that is characterized by abnormalities in cartilage and bone joints nearby.
2. Cartilage is the part of the joint lining the ends of the bones to facilitate movement of the joints.
3. Abnormalities in cartilage can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing stiffness, pain and restriction of movement in the joints.
4. Osteoarthritis of the knee that occurs due to interruption or failure in repairing cartilage chondrocytes / cartilage.
5. The prevalence of osteoarthritis in the knee at the age of 45-55 years women and men alike. Meanwhile, at the age of 55 years and over more common in women with a ratio of 4:1.
6. Several etiologic factors have been known to be associated with the occurrence of knee osteoarthritis include:
The more advanced age of a person, generally the greater the risk factor for osteoarthritis of the knee. This is because the knee joint is used as a fulcrum weight often experience a compression or pressure and friction, which can cause the cartilage that lines the hard bone in the knee joint will be eroded over time and susceptible to degeneration.
It is clear that being overweight or obese can be a risk factor for osteoarthritis of the knee. Excess weight will add compression or pressure or load on the knee joint. The greater the load on the fulcrum by the knee joint, the greater the risk of damage to the bone.
c. Hereditary or congenital factor
Cartilage structure and laxity in the joints, as well as irregular joint surface of a person as a risk factor for congenital factor occurs Osteoarthritis of the knee.
d. Trauma to the joints and damage to the joints before
The occurrence of trauma or injury to the knee joint can also cause damage or abnormalities in the bones forming the joint.
e. Collinear legs
The angle between the femur and tibia are > 180 degrees can result in load pedestal supported by the knee joint becomes uneven and localized on one side only, where the load side of the larger pedestal will occur at greater risk of damage.
f. The work and activities of daily living
Work and the activity that involves a lot of movement of the knee is also one of the causes of osteoarthritis of the knee.
g. Heavy exercise, especially football.
h. Hormonal factors and metabolic diseases
Degenerative changes in the knee joint can occur due to hormonal changes that occur in post-menopausal women. In addition, a person who has diabetes mellitus can also be affected by osteoarthritis of the knee.
i. Longstanding rheumatoid
Arthritis (joint inflammation) that has lasted a long time can increase the possibility of osteoarthritis of the knee
7. In the joints, including the knee joint, the bone ends are usually coated hard cartilage.
8. The cartilage has no nerve tissue, lymph tissue, and there are no blood vessels.
9. Inside there are also joint fluid called synovial fluid, which serves as a lubricant to prevent friction and the ends of the bones that can lead to the erosion of the bone.
10. In case of shortage of synovial fluid as a result of a process of degeneration, there will be friction between the cartilage so that the cartilage becomes eroded, then there will be pain.
11. Usually the pain will be felt after a chronic condition in which the cartilage is very thin and hard bone ends rub against each other already.
12. It is not easy to know at an early stage because there is no cartilage nerve tissue, lymph tissue, and blood vessels so that the initial damage was not detected in the absence of pain.
13. Pain will be felt after a hard bone that had the nerve tissue, lymph and blood vessels rubbing.
14. OA usually occurs slowly starting joint pain after activity, then after a long time will feel sore and stiff.
15. At the knee: and feels stiff, hard to use for walking.
16. Stiffness in joints after resting and will soon disappear after the activity starts again.
17. Stiffness in the morning, for no more than 30 minutes.
18. Pain in the joints which will subside in the morning and will become heavy at day or night along with the many activities undertaken.
19. Atrophy of the muscles around the joints due to inactive of the joints that can cause pain.
20. Pain and stiffness can affect posture, coordination and walking ability.
21. Signs of OA in the knee pain that arises because of the movement of the knee, such as a locked joint symptoms, pain when going to rise from a chair, pain when rising from sitting on the floor or the time from standing to sitting on the floor, leg muscle weakness.